Correlations among Sensory and Cognitive Impressions of Spas in Vietnam



Sensory, Attribute, Servicescape, Perception


Sensory perception in general is the foremost important component of perception since it is significant with the formation of cognitive perception. However, the importance of each sensory component remains largely unknown. In this study, spa customers’ perception was examined. By analyzing reviews of spas in Vietnam, this study found that customers relied more on the visual memory when recalling their experiences. However, it is the impression of a given taste or smell that significantly correlated with customers’ perception of certain cognitive elements, such as price and value, and friendliness and politeness. Therefore, it is recommended that spa managers in Vietnam should focus more on the gustatory and olfactory elements when creating and maintaining their sensory servicescapes. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are also discussed.

Author Biographies

Bình Nghiêm-Phú, University of Hyogo

Assistant Professor

School of Economics and Management

University of Hyogo

Jillian Rae Suter, Shizuoka University

Jillian Rae Suter is currently an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Informatics, Shizuoka University, Japan. Her research is directed by the social marketing theories. She is implementing research on consumer culture, notably the impact of the rise and fall in popularity of “Cool Japan” on both the national economy and society, and the global market.





How to Cite

Nghiêm-Phú, B. and Suter, J. R. (2022) “Correlations among Sensory and Cognitive Impressions of Spas in Vietnam”, e-Review of Tourism Research, 18(5), pp. 717–734. Available at: (Accessed: 6 December 2023).